1. We need a detailed modeling methodology and expertise within the state of Florida to predict the dispersion of gases and odors around a landfill. - As existing landfills become larger and as development pressures force housing closer to existing landfills, there will be inevitable conflicts and complaints. If counties have a reliable and not too expensive odor dispersion modeling expertise available to them from within the state university system, then they will have an objective and scientifically defensible means to establish buffer zones to prevent future housing from coming too close.

  2. Research concerning the effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment has exploded in recent years. Daily news reports show new endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals are present in waterways, having a detrimental effect on wildlife, and are not adequately removed by wastewater treatment plants. Previously, disposal of these old medications through the trash was frowned upon due to the risks of accidental child and animal poisoning in favor of sewer disposal, but in light of recent research, states such as Minnesota, Michigan, and New Hampshire are now recommending trash disposal as a stop gap measure until further study and disposal collection methods can be developed. With a large population comprised of a large percentage of older adults using lots of medicines, Florida most certainly will be impacted by these trends.

  3. Development and commercialization of economically viable ash reuse technology for ash from WTE facilities. - Florida incinerates over 6.5M tons of waste per year, and generates about 2M tons of ash per year, requiring disposal. Diverting this material from landfills will extend the State's landfill disposal capacity.  Can ash from waste to energy plants be beneficially used in large scale applications? Florida has the highest number of waste to energy plants in the U.S. and ash handling is a major component of the operations. If ash is somehow recycled, we can be on the road to zero waste.

  4. Urban Infilling Issues Related to Siting/Operations of Solid Waste Facilities - Solid waste assets are being degraded/closed because of constant urban pressures.  Vacant land within the borders of existing landfills is very valuable as it is very hard to site new facilities.

  5. How can gaseous reduced sulfur compounds being released from the cover systems at Construction and Demolition Debris (C&D) landfills be mitigated?  Controlling off site odors around a landfill, specifically a Class 3 and C& D, is a public concern.

  6. In Florida the housing boom is driving waste haulers and disposal sites to alternate disposal sites. Some C&D sites allegedly are improperly maintained and are receiving questionable material.  What are the impacts of unlined C&D landfills on Florida's water supply?  What are the impacts of industrial wastes being disposed in C&D sites

  7. Processed Yard Trash; High Supply and Low Demand - Study the feasibility of placing processed yard trash in a monofil and allow it to naturally decompose for future mining. Determine how long it would take for the waste to decompose and be used safely for different purposes; e.g. landfill cover, potting soil mix, soil amendments, substitute for peat, etc.

  8.  Are C&D facilities likely to cause violations of the FDEP groundwater standards or criteria? If so, what are the pollutants of concern? What options are available to address these water quality violations (e.g., liner and leachate collection systems; expanded zones of discharge; variances; pixie dust; etc) and what are the advantages and disadvantages associated with each option? If liners are necessary, what design standards and liner specifications should be used for C&D sites? - There is a great deal of uncertainty in the regulated community about the FDEP requirements for C&D sites. It currently appears that a liner is not necessary at sites where there is little public opposition, but liners are required at sites that are strongly opposed by the public.

  9. Release of parameters from the soil due to changes in redox and/or pH as a result of landfill operation - Landfill leachate is being blamed for iron and arsenic observations in the groundwater. A shopping mall may also cause these releases, but the groundwater around a shopping mall is not monitored. Evaluation of the "shadowing effect" of landfill liners on secondary standards, specifically, the release of iron. - We are finding elevated levels of secondary drinking water standards (primarily iron) in monitoring wells down gradient of lined landfills but don't know whether it is leaching from solid waste, released from soil due to a change in pH caused by the waste, or simply a change in soil chemistry due to the presence of the liner. Are there similar elevated levels of other metals or pH changes from paved parking lots and building foundations not associated with solid waste?  Why are we seeing high levels of iron in the groundwater down gradient of lined landfills? Is this something that can be avoided? - Facilities are coming in for permit renewals, and need to demonstrate that they have not caused violations of secondary drinking water standards.

  10. How can we reduce the costs of long-term care for closed landfills?

  11. Unlined Landfills - Base long time care on landfill stabilization. Develop a model based on subsidence, barrier layer effectiveness, ground water quality, storm water quality, and gas production.  Hopefully, the model could be used by permittees to predict whether or not their landfill qualified for a reduction in the 30 year post-closure period. This knowledge could help public and private entities better allocate funds for the future.  EPA has a LTC model, but I believe Florida should develop its own model, especially as it might pertain to bioreactors.
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