This study examines the process organization and performance of solid waste management and recycling programs in Florida communities. Most studies of co-production activities, such as recycling, examine citizens’ motivation and commitment to participate in service delivery. This study expands on this to identify how city level programs and policies can influence solid waste recycling. The results from the survey developed and implemented in this project contribute to the understanding of recycling services and co-production from the aspects of policy design, political institution, and program implementation by asking questions to city staff members knowledgeable about the solid waste management and recycling programs in Florida cities.


Based upon responses to the survey questions, two analyses were conducted. The first analysis examines factors that cause the variation of solid waste recycling rates among Florida municipalities based upon a policy implementation framework. We found that a lack of information and technical assistance on recycling negatively affect recycling rate, but higher levels of local commitment facilitate to achieve recycling goals and produces significant performance improvements. The second analysis examines amounts of solid waste recycled at the county level. This analysis is consistent with the municipal survey results. We advance an explanation for differences in recycling rates at county level using community characteristics and government expenditures with panel data from 1995 to 2014. Demographic heterogeneity and community economic status are important community characteristics that affect citizens’ recycling behaviors.

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University of FloridaFlorida international universityUSFMiami UniversityFlorida A&MUCFFlorida StateFAUUniversity of West FloridaFlorida Institute of Technology